THE ESSENTIAL EIGHT *
1. Chinese Law Prof Blog-The Fourth Plenum’s “Decision”: my take By Donald Clarke The text of the decision passed by the Fourth Plenum on Oct. 23rd, entitled “Decision on Several Important Issues Regarding the All-Around Promotion of Ruling the State According to Law,” has finally been released [Chinese | English]. As expected, it offers more detail than did the Communiqué released earlier, but I don’t see anything here that would require a fundamental revision of the preliminary assessments that observers (including me) made after reading the Communiqué. Even though those assessments were varied, my sense is that whatever you thought the Communiqué indicated, your opinion will be reinforced, or at least not overturned, by your reading of the Decision. The big-picture summary is that the Decision contemplates no fundamental reform in the relationship between the legal system and the Party. It is clear that institutionally speaking, the Party will remain above the law. At the same time, the Decision does contemplate some genuinely meaningful (and in my opinion positive) reforms. It also has a lot of stuff that might look meaningful but isn’t.
Related: Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party – Decision of the Fourth Plenum of the 18th CCP Central Committee (English) | Genius annotable version, Donald Clarke has already started
Related: 聚焦十八届四中全会_政经频道_财新网 Ca
Related: Earning Trust of the People Requires Rule of Law – Caixin – Hu Shuli Ediitorial The constitution is the foundation of the country’s rule of law. In at least two major speeches over the past two years, party General Secretary Xi Jinping said that the country must uphold the constitution if it wishes to uphold the rule of law. Notably, the communiqué published after the full meeting of the Central Committee includes not only the usual exhortations to learn from history, but also some guidelines that befit the times, laying solid groundwork for the implementation of the constitution. The document stresses the leaders’ resolve to protect the authority of the constitution and build a socialist-legal system unique to China, and puts the constitution at the front and centre of governance.
2. Xinhua Insight: China moves to expand, upgrade consumption – Xinhua Consumption is an important “engine” for economic growth and represents great potential for China’s development, said a statement on the central government’s website following an executive meeting of the State Council presided over by Premier Li Keqiang…The statement pinpointed some major fields for boosting consumption, including information-related products (such as mobile Internet), green and energy-saving products, housing, tourism and leisure, education, as well as elderly care. // 国务院重点推进六大领域消费-
3. China could ‘punish’ Hong Kong over protests, says ex-HK central bank chief | Reuters A member of China’s central bank’s advisory body warned on Wednesday that Beijing will punish Hong Kong if pro-democracy protests that have paralyzed parts of the Chinese-controlled financial center for a month are allowed to continue. Joseph Yam, executive vice president of advisory body China Society for Finance and Banking and a former Hong Kong central bank chief, said the city’s financial integrity and stability of its currency were also at risk.
Related: Politician Who Called for Hong Kong Leader’s Resignation Is Formally Penalized – NYTimes James Tien was removed from the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference, the official China News Service reported. The largely powerless but prestigious organ of the Chinese government moved quickly to remove Mr. Tien, one of more than 2,000 delegates, after he said last Friday in a radio interview that Chief Executive Leung Chun-ying should resign.
Related: Taking Back Hong Kong’s Future – NYTimes.com Joshua Wong OpEd // The protest movement may not ultimately bear fruit. But, if nothing else, it has delivered hope. I would like to remind every member of the ruling class in Hong Kong: Today you are depriving us of our future, but the day will come when we decide your future. No matter what happens to the protest movement, we will reclaim the democracy that belongs to us, because time is on our side.
Related: Video: Table tennis champion Zhang Jike loses £30k with this celebration – Telegraph China’s newly-crowned World Cup winner Zhang Jike was fined his entire prize money of $45,000 (approximately £30,000) after destroying two advertising boards while celebrating victory in Sunday’s final. Zhang, the Olympic champion, regained the World Cup title he won in Paris three years ago by beating compatriot and top seed Ma Long in Duesseldorf in seven games and celebrated the tense victory by putting his foot through two boards.
5. From the dragon’s perspective: an initial report on China’s response to the unfolding Ebola epidemic | Somatosphere In this initial report, we provide insight into China’s response to Ebola as the epidemic unfolds. We focus on three key areas: 1) print media coverage, 2) social media commentary, and 3) brief stories of Africans living in Guangzhou. We finish with a discussion on the role of anthropology in engaging the ongoing epidemic
6. Online media staff to gain press credentials in China – People’s Daily Online According to a circular jointly issued by the Cyberspace Administration of China (CAC) and State Administration of Press, Publication, Radio, Film and Television (SAPPRFT) on Wednesday, the first group to receive credentials must work for news sites that have been approved by the CAC and have more than one year of news reporting experience. The training and vetting of online media journalists will be handled by the CAC while the SAPPRFT will issue credentials, according to Jiang Jun, spokesperson of the CAC. // 全国一类资质新闻网站将正式推行新闻记者证制度
7. “王诚”叔侄神秘财富拼图 a look at the business empire built by Ling Wancheng, Ling Jihua’s brother // 自2001年起，通过化名、庞杂交叉的股权投资，“王诚”、
8. Sinica Podcast: Chomping at the Bitcoin Zennon Kapron, fintech expert, owner of the Shanghai consultancy Kapronasia, and recent author of the book Chomping at the Bitcoin, we delve into the driving forces behind the cryptocurrency revolution in China, as well as take a quick look at the various other kinds of innovation surfacing in China’s online financial sector // says Bitcoin spike was not related to corrupt officials getting money out, as some bearish pundits hyperbolically claimed, evidence-free, for a bit of time
BUSINESS, ECONOMY AND TRADE *
Banks in More Cities Offer Better Mortgage Terms, Report Says – Caixin Rong360.com said 53 banks in 15 cities offered discounts on mortgage interest rates to first-time homebuyers in October. Nine did so in September. Thirty banks in Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Shenzhen have started to offer discounts on mortgages, and another 23 banks in smaller cities have also provided better terms, the report said.
房贷新政“落地”满月 二手房成交火爆_财经频道_一财网 央行9月底政策松绑，
经济参考网 – 国开行拟放宽保障房项目申贷 资金缺口压力较大 部分地区开工不足 一面是经济下行、地方债务激增，
中央巡视组约谈超150人 一汽腐败窝案收网_财经频道_一财网 CBN-more than 150 people questioned in ongoing corruption investigation at automaker behemoth Fist Automotive Works (FAW)…sounds like some of the corruption involves the FAW-Volkswagen JV // 中央巡视组对一汽集团进行的连续两次调查，规模庞大，
China to Merge Two State-Controlled Railcar Makers – WSJ – WSJ A railcar-industry combination would be a step back because it would reduce competition, said Nicholas Lardy, a China scholar with the Peterson Institute for International Economics in Washington. “The argument that they are undercutting each other in bidding on foreign projects is nonsense,” he said. “The solution is to harden budget constraints so they can’t finance losses by additional borrowing. Such a deal also would raise questions about China’s determination to enforce monopoly laws, said Derek Scissors, a resident scholar at the American Enterprise Institute.
Learning to Love China’s New Superbank – Bloomberg View Rather than fight China, the U.S. should help ensure that the new bank adopts greater accountability and higher lending standards than China typically does when doling out money. Carping from afar, and strong-arming rivals to do the same, isn’t the best way to accomplish that worthy goal.
China Shadow Banking Shifted to Insurers Alarms Moody’s – Bloomberg Insurers held 281 billion yuan ($46 billion) of trust products on June 30, surging from 144 billion yuan at the end of last year, China Insurance Regulatory Commission data show. The companies’ shadow bank assets, including wealth management products and other financing kept off commercial lenders’ balance sheets, reached 1.14 trillion yuan, or 13 percent of their investments, Standard & Poor’s estimated, adding that this made them “vulnerable in times of stress.”
Fewer couples want second child – China – China Daily About 700,000 Chinese couples in which one of the partners is an only child applied to have a second child by the end of August, and 620,000 of them got a permit, the National Health and Family Planning Commission said on Wednesday. That’s far fewer than previous estimates by the authority, which put the annual births increase due to the policy change at more than 2 million.
China to End Back-Card Clearing Monopoly U.S. Opposed – Bloomberg China’s government indicated that it’s set to end China UnionPay Co.’s monopoly on bank-card clearing, paving the way for competitors such as MasterCard Inc. (MA) and Visa Inc. (V) to get a foothold in the nation.
POLITICS AND LAW *
China’s anti-corruption drive is a party tactic to preserve power | The Australian interesting piece by John Fitzgerald // Xi came to office knowing the party was not fully under his control, that policy was being made on the run by entrenched interest groups in collusion with corrupt officials, and that few instruments were at hand to deal with problems of system command short of a political campaign. He launched a campaign focusing on corruption. Xi’s wider agenda explains why the anti-corruption campaign has life in it yet. As Wang explained, the campaign has a couple of stages to go. Beyond that, Xi plans to limit the scope of local authority so officials can no longer ride roughshod over their communities or ignore instructions from Beijing. This step will require reforms to China’s judicial and fiscal systems at the local level, and refashioning central-local relations on a model yet to be devised. It’s these long-term plans to make Leninism work in a market economy that make the risks of taking on “tigers” and “flies” worthwhile.
21 Arrested Over Deadly Land Clash in Southwest China – NYTimes.com In addition to those arrested for the violence in Jinning County, the Kunming Commission for Discipline Inspection, the local Communist Party antigraft agency, said that 16 officials had been suspended or removed from their posts while their links to the project were investigated. Li Jiaming, the head of Fuyou’s village committee, was arrested on Oct. 21 on suspicion of taking bribes.
Xinjiang publishes anti-terror brochures – China – Chinadaily.com.cn The brochure was compiled by the regional public security department and published by the Xinjiang People’s Publishing House. The brochure tells the public how to react to explosions and arson, as well as gun, ax and vehicle attacks using text and illustrations.
State Grid Shanghai chief Feng Jun detained in corruption sweep | South China Morning Post Sources within State Grid Shanghai said Feng was taken away by anti-graft investigators in Beijing on Tuesday when he was about to board a flight back to Shanghai after a meeting. They said Feng had been a low-profile figure in Shanghai and the investigation could be linked to his time in Jiangsu.
China’s Lurid Tales of Corruption Hide a Second Story – China Real Time Report – WSJ The vivid stories flowing out of Shanxi are satisfying to a Chinese public that is weary of corruption, but the circumstances of their publication – always after the suspects have been placed under investigation by the party – highlight the limited role the media and the public play in rooting out corruption. For all its size and power, the party needs help policing its own.
多省份即时增开人代会处理人事 成地方“新常态”-搜狐新闻 Provincial NPCs meeting more to deal with vacancies in the ranks, many caused by corruption detentions, becoming “new normal”
安徽广播电视台原台长张苏洲被查 卸任仅3个月|张苏洲|安徽广播电视台原台长_新浪新闻 hea
FOREIGN AND DEFENSE AFFAIRS *
How China Sees America’s Moves in Asia: Worse Than Containment | The National Interest Putting U.S.-Chinese relations on a stronger foundation—a conspicuous failure of the current administration’s foreign policy—will require a more thorough understanding of Chinese strategy and especially perceptions. This is not a matter of more dialogue, or of closely reading China’s defense white paper. Nor is the anodyne and ambiguous terminology employed by diplomats particularly helpful. Understanding the perceptions of Chinese national-security elites requires a frequent “look under the hood” of U.S.-Chinese relations. Here, a single, representative Chinese academic article is discussed in detail for its utility in gauging the state of contemporary U.S.-Chinese relations. The article entitled “On the U.S. Restriction of Chinese Sea Power in the Post-Cold War Era” was published as the lead article in the summer 2014 edition of the journal 东北亚论坛 [Northeast Asia Forum]. This is hardly China’s most significant foreign-policy publication, and its authors cannot be counted among Beijing’s foreign-policy elite. And yet that may suggest its potential to cut through the cloud of opaque argumentation that often envelops the Chinese capital. // someone needs to write a “men are from mars, women are from venus” book for US-China relations
Danwei Model Workers 2014 – Danwei Danwei has been publishing the Model Worker awards – our list of the best websites, blogs, Twitter feeds and podcasts on China since 2005 (there are links to the earlier awards at the bottom of this post). This year, we’ve decided to award the Model Worker award for the best China website one that does not publish news or commentary on current affairs at all but focuses on the intangible cultural heritage of Chinese accents, dialects, and language
Chinese Corporations in Africa: Saints or Sinners?-A China in Africa Podcast | ChinaFile “The African way of life is under attack by Chinese corporations,” argues University of Technology, Sydney doctoral candidate Onjumi Okumu. The Kenya native contends that a combination of weak governance in African mixed with no legal restraints on Chinese corporate behavior encourage PRC companies to behave illegally and destructively in Africa, destroying the continent’s fragile social capital. Okumu focuses, in particular, on the effects Chinese investments are having on the people of Kenya. It’s a provocative, controversial, and fascinating thesis.
Growing China to contribute more to Asia development: Xi – Xinhua Xi made the comments in a meeting with the members of the board of directors of the Boao Forum for Asia(BFA), who gathered in Beijing for a working conference. Xi congratulated them on the success of the meeting and shared China’s development and views on the prospect of Asian development. He called on the BFA to make contribution to promoting China’s exchanges and cooperation with other countries and seeking Asian prosperity. Stressing that China’s economic growth is moderate yet steady, Xi said China is committed to transforming its development mode, adjusting its economic structure and upgrading its industries, so as to attain a sustainable and healthy economic development. ‘
Japan to be ‘respected guests’ at APEC – China Daily Foreign Minister Wang Yi said on Wednesday that China will extend a hospitable welcome to all visiting APEC leaders amid ongoing global media speculation concerning whether the leaders of China and Japan will meet one-on-one at the event next month. Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe will attend the November meeting in Beijing, and Tokyo has frequently stated its desire for an official dialogue to take place between President Xi Jinping and Abe. Xi met on Wednesday with former Japanese prime minister Yasuo Fukuda, viewed by Japanese media as a possible intermediary. Fukuda, also chairman of the board of directors for the Boao Forum for Asia, is part of a visiting delegation.
Yasuo Fukuda, ex-Japanese prime minister, meets Xi Jinping as Apec summit nears | South China Morning Post Fukuda, who has now met the president twice in three months, told Xi that China played a “big role” in the international community through its expanding economy, according to a person at the talks. Xi told the delegation the nation’s development was closely related to that of Asia as a whole, and China would continue its opening-up policy and strengthen rule by law.
“草莽”荣兰祥_南方都市报数字报 Lanxiang Vocational school, made famous by western claims of its role in cyber espionage, has a President who is embroiled in scandal. First, there was a brawl involving students and his wife over a divorce, then there were the revelations that he has 6 kids, allegations of domestic violence, multiple ID cards…..now he says hostile foreign forces are at work… // 近期，蓝翔技校校长荣兰祥接连被爆学生跨省打架、家暴、
China says Canada’s Harper to visit before APEC summit | Reuters Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper will visit China next week ahead of a multilateral summit, Chinese Foreign Minister Wang Yi said on Wednesday, as the two countries seek to mend ties strained by rows over cybersecurity and spying. The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Summit (APEC) will be held in Beijing from Nov. 7-11. Harper’s office said earlier this week he had canceled plans to attend the forum in the wake of attacks by homegrown radicals last week in Ottawa that killed two soldiers.
The Great Game Folio – Carnegie Endowment for International Peace- C. Raja Mohan CHINA IN LANKA-Drawing red lines or mounting public pressure on neighbours will not work. The only way to limit the scope and structure of China’s security profile in South Asia is to expand India’s own cooperation, including in the defence domain, with all neighbours. The UPA had indeed sought to deepen defence ties with India’s neighbours. But it was not a strategic priority for the foreign office, the defence ministry or the armed forces. Modi must now try and make India the defence partner of choice for its smaller neighbours. This will take a while, but the policies and institutional framework to get there must be put in place now.
China Must Avoid Destabilizing Asia: Indonesia Army Chief – Bloomberg China must not use its “great force” to create regional instability, Indonesian military chief General Moeldoko said, as his nation seeks to avoid being drawn into China’s territorial disputes in the South China Sea. “China is a great economic superpower, however we don’t want this great force to create instability in the region,” Moeldoko, who goes by one name, said in a speech in Singapore yesterday. “Just a small disturbance within this maritime zone will give a big impact” and create turbulence in the region.
China says anti-graft accord to be signed at APEC summit | Reuters Chinese Foreign Minister Wang Yi told a conference in Beijing that the anti-corruption plan was one of the agreements set to be signed at APEC, though he did not give details of its contents. “Anti-corruption is one of the topics up for discussion, which all parties care about. The world has already seen China’s determination and measures taken to fight corruption,” Wang said.
从古田再出发 发展我军特有政治优势 ——国防部网站 more about the Gutian Congress, long piece on page 1 of PLA Daily today // 论在强军兴军征程中坚持和发展我军特有政治优势
“军老虎”怎么审 Thepaper looks at the legal process for corrupt PLA “tigers” // 中央军委原副主席徐才厚被移送审查起诉，接下来，
Crude Complications: Venezuela, China, and the United States-Carnegie-Tsinghua Center For now, U.S. and Chinese government and business leaders are moving in opposite directions in their relations with Caracas. Amid frosty diplomatic ties, the United States is importing less and less Venezuelan oil, while China is accessing, and financing, more and more. Going forward, the three-way relationship will provide a crucial test of how Washington and Beijing interact as they adopt policies for the use of extra-heavy oils, and for engaging with energy-rich but troubled countries in each other’s near abroad.
专家：我国情报系统亟待升级 理念陈旧令人扼腕_军事_环球网 首先，
HONG KONG, MACAO AND TAIWAN *
Accounting Firms’ Anti-Hong Kong Protest Stance Prompted by Pressure – WSJ An executive at one of the Big Four firms said the executive had no knowledge of the ad until the night before it ran. A few local partners at the firm said after the ad ran that they hadn’t thought it would attract a lot of attention since it didn’t appear in the English-language press. One person involved in placing the ad declined to give a reason for the decision. Referring to the proportion of the Big Four’s accounting business that comes from the mainland, the person said, “Do you think we had a choice?”
Hong Kong protests bring crisis of confidence for traditional media | World news | The Guardian Analysts say the gulf between pro-Beijing and pro-democratic media is widening. “Seven Demon Police Surround and Beat Protester for Four Minutes,” Apple Daily headlined a story about a recent instance of suspected police brutality. “Police Assaulted,” reported the pro-Beijing newspaper Ta Kung Pao. The pro-establishment television station TVB, which first broadcast footage of the beating, said in an early-morning broadcast that the protester was “punched and kicked”. Later, after the report prompted a public outcry, they replaced that voiceover with another saying that the police may have “used excessive force”. “This is a demonstration of what we’ve been fearing for years,” said Shirley Yam, vice-chairwoman of the Hong Kong Journalists Association and a columnist for the South China Morning Post
Q. and A.: Pankaj Mishra on the Hong Kong Protests – NYTimes.com I think we ought to see the protests in the larger context of the revolt of the unrepresented against a mode of global capitalism and alliances of politics and business that create intolerable amounts of socioeconomic inequality and existential uncertainty — and you see it everywhere, from Gezi Park in Istanbul to São Paulo, with complex manifestations ranging from the rise of the far-right in France and Britain and India to the victories of Evo Morales in Bolivia and Joko Widodo in Indonesia.
For Asia’s Gays, Taiwan Stands Out as Beacon – NYTimes.com When it comes to gay rights in Asia, Taiwan is a world apart. Openly gay and lesbian soldiers can serve in the military, and the Ministry of Education requires textbooks to promote tolerance for gays and lesbians. In recent years, legislators here have passed protections for gays, including a law against workplace discrimination. A bill to legalize same-sex marriage has been introduced in Taiwan’s legislature, although it still faces strong opposition from Christian activists and their allies in the governing Kuomintang.
TECH AND MEDIA *
Mainland websites among worst copyright offenders Chinese peer-to-peer (P2P) portal Xunlei.com and linking website Yyets.com are among the worst online offenders of copyrighted TV and film material, according to the Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA).
‘Double 11’ race heats up with Amazon offering — China Daily Six Amazon platforms in the US, Germany, Spain, France, the United Kingdom and Italy have officially opened for sales to Chinese consumers, who have shown growing appetite for overseas brands and products. The plan, announced on Wednesday by Amazon China as part of its strategy to boost sales during China’s upcoming Double 11 online shopping festival, is seen as a counterattack to China’s e-commerce king Alibaba Group Holding Ltd, which also pinned its hopes on a “globalization” strategy to break its sales record of 35 billion yuan ($5.73 billion) achieved on Nov 11, 2013.
Baidu Sales Miss Estimates Amid Push Into Mobile Search – Bloomberg Revenue climbed 52 percent to 13.5 billion yuan from 8.89 billion yuan, the Beijing-based company said in a statement. That compared with the 13.6 billion-yuan average of 12 analysts’ estimates compiled by Bloomberg. The company also issued a sales forecast for the fourth-quarter that fell short of predictions. Baidu’s costs have climbed as billionaire founder Robin Li invests to add services that help shoppers find retail stores and retrieve product information as search increasingly shifts from desktop computers to mobile devices such as smartphones.
Prominent Weibo account with more than 7 million followers was sold for 50 yuan ($8) | Offbeat China The media have been talking about the death of Weibo, China’s (still) leading web-based social media platform, for well more than a year, ever since the government crackdown on online opinion leaders last year. What now? Yesterday, popular playwright Ning Caishen sold his Weibo account, which has 7.39 million followers, for a total of 50 yuan. That’s about $8.
After Alibaba, Xiaomi lures 29 banks for loan | Business Spectator Xiaomi, which sells more smartphones than Samsung ElectronicsCo. and Apple Inc. in China, has borrowed US$1 billion from 29 banks for a three-year loan, its first move to tap overseas funds for cash. The smartphone maker has moved beyond China to sell in India and Indonesia, and a person familiar with the loan said it is raising the funds from the loan to expand overseas. The three-year, US$1 billion loan is set to close Friday, with Brazil’s Banco do Brasil to Japan’s Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFJ among the 29 that have joined Wall Street and Chinese banks as lenders, people familiar with the matter said.
SOCIETY, ART, SPORTS, CULTURE AND HISTORY *
SOHO endows $10m to Yale – Business – Chinadaily.com.cn The SOHO China Foundation on Wednesday signed an agreement with Yale University endowing $10 million in “SOHO China Scholarships” to the university. The SOHO China Scholarships is a $100 million initiative launched by the SOHO China Foundation to create financial aid for Chinese students to obtain undergraduate education at the world’s top universities.
中央文艺座谈会上,莫言遭到不点名批评 Did Xi Jinping criticize Mo Yan at the culture symposium, even though he did not mention him by name? // 习总又说：“文艺作品不能以追求到国外获奖为目的，
Video: Ai Weiwei, Speaking from Beijing – The New Yorker Earlier this year, we invited Ai Weiwei, the Chinese artist and activist, to be a guest at The New Yorker Festival. Ai is barred from leaving China, but he agreed to to do a live video chat, with a New York audience, from his studio in Beijing.
SAT Cheating Inquiry Delays Scores for South Korea and China – NYTimes.com The delay applies to people who took the exam on Oct. 11. Students from other countries who took it on the same date received their scores on Tuesday. In a prepared statement, the Educational Testing Service said its decision was “based on specific, reliable information,” and referred to “organizations that seek to illegally obtain test materials for their own profit, to the ultimate detriment of all students.” The College Board, the company that creates the SAT, contracts with the testing service to provide testing security and administer its tests overseas.
ENERGY, ENVIRONMENT, SCIENCE AND HEALTH *
China Rushes to Harness Wind While Government Still Pays – Bloomberg By annual additions, China is set to build almost twice as much onshore wind power as Europe and more than triple new installations in the U.S., according to Zhou Yiyi, a Shanghai-based analyst for Bloomberg New Energy Finance. All that new wind energy means China’s policy makers are now at the stage where they’re set to withdraw the incentives brought in to encourage developments. China has proposed cutting tariffs by as much as 11 percent for projects to be built after June 30, 2015
职业护鸟人的窘境_图片频道_财新网 Caixin slideshow of people in Hebei who are trying to fight the illegal and massive poaching of migratory birds
Advisory Body Votes to Raise Subway, Bus Fares in Capital – Caixin Most of the 25 people chosen by the government to attend a hearing on public transportation voted to raise fares for subway and bus rides. The majority were also in favor of institutionalizing a fare adjustment system so fares can be reviewed and changed every year in light of income growth, the Beijing Municipal Commission of Development and Reform said. The city’s top economic planning body held the public hearing on October 28. The commission chose the hearing participants from a variety of walks of life and groups concerned about the proposed fare increases. They are meant to be representative of subway and bus company workers, passengers, transportation experts and political advisors.
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