Welcome To The Xi Era; Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era--Sinocism-10.19.17
|Oct 19, 2017|
It did not take long for Party leadership and the propaganda organs to go from "Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era 新时代中国特色社会主义思想" to "Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era 习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想". To prevent carpal tunnel syndrome I will abbreviate it to XJPTSCCNA.
The Chinese Communists mainly represented by Xi Jinping have created Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era, leading Party officials said Wednesday.
"The Thought is the biggest highlight of the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China (CPC) and a historic contribution to the Party's development," said Zhang Dejiang when joining a panel discussion at the congress opened Wednesday. [张德江参加十九大内蒙古代表团讨论 "张德江说，报告通篇体现习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想"]
"This important thought represents the latest achievement in adapting Marxism to the Chinese context, and is an important component of the system of theories of socialism with Chinese characteristics," Yu Zhengsheng said while joining another panel discussion. [俞正声参加十九大新疆代表团讨论 "俞正声指出，党的十八大以来，在习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想指引下"]
Liu Yunshan said the elevation of the Thought into the Party's guiding principle is of great political, theoretical and practical significance. All members of the Party should study hard Xi's "new era" thought in terms of its historical background, scientific system and practical requirement. [刘云山参加十九大云南代表团讨论 ...党的十九大把习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想确立为党必须长期坚持的指导思想，实现了党的指导思想又一次与时俱进]
Liu Yunshan, the official in charge of ideology and Party Construction at the 18th Party Congress, says that the 19th Party Congress will elevate XJPTSCCNA into a 指导思想 (guiding ideology or guiding principle).
The Thursday CCTV Evening News showed Li Keqiang, Wang Qishan, Zhang Gaoli and Xu Qiliang using the formulation "Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era":
All of the 18th Party Politburo members, except Xi, and PLA leadership are using this formulation. That to me seems like a pretty clear signal this will end up in the Party Constitution as an eponymous guiding ideology. Such a development, after only one term as General Secretary, would be a significant break from the norms of the reform era, and would be an even bigger "norm-breaker" than keeping Wang Qishan on the 19th Party Congress Politburo Standing Committee.
The PRC has gone through the Mao Era and the Deng Era. Welcome now to the Xi Era.
The Essential Eight
1. Xi Sets A New Target For His Era
As to the report’s political substance, Xi also put his own stake in the ground by setting a new interim goal for China to “basically realize socialist modernization” by 2035. It is no coincidence that the target falls at the midpoint between China’s already established “twin centenary goals”—becoming a “moderately well-off society” by the time of the CCP’s centenary in 2021, and to “have built a modern socialist country that is strong, prosperous, democratic, culturally advanced, and harmonious” by the PRC’s hundredth birthday in 2049. Many observers will focus on the fact that the new goal is consistent with being achieved during Xi’s lifetime, which may be meant to hint at his intentions about staying on beyond his next term. But it is far too early for Xi himself, to say nothing of external observers, to be making such judgments.
He also brought forward a longstanding goal to achieving “socialist modernization” by 2035 while affirming the goal of placing China in front ranks of nations by 2049...
Christopher Johnson, a former China analyst at the Central Intelligence Agency, said the 2035 deadline appeared to be designed to attach an ambitious goal to Mr. Xi’s new slogan.
“The China dream and national rejuvenation are lofty concepts but this is an actual target which pins him down a little bit,” said Mr. Johnson, who is now with the Center for Strategic and International Studies think tank. “Some will say it’s something that could be achievable within his lifetime, if not his tenure.”
Mr. Johnson added that the decision not to repeat the earlier GDP goal was a “signal for lower growth” that could foreshadow a big deleveraging effort next year.
Of course, we can’t forget the bit of text next to the masthead. That, as it clearly states, is the theme of the congress: “Not neglecting our original intent (不忘初心), steadfastly bearing in mind our mission (牢记使命), raising the great banner of socialism with Chinese characteristics, decisively achieving a comprehensively well-off society, seizing the great victory of new era socialism with Chinese characteristics (夺取新时代中国特色社会主义伟大胜利), struggling tirelessly to achieve the great rejuvenation of the Chinese people.”
And that says it all, though as we have said we will be unpacking this document for many weeks.
人民日报-人民网—The October 19 front page of People's Daily, one for the ages
The principal contradiction facing Chinese society now is the contradiction between unbalanced and inadequate development and the people's ever-growing needs for a better life, Xi said.
"The phrase 'new era' represents the changes in China after 40 years of development," Su Wei, a professor at the Party School of the Chongqing Committee, told the Global Times on Wednesday.
"And by pointing out the new contradiction in Chinese society, Xi also revealed the key emphasis of future work - more balanced development in rural and remote areas with science and technology driving the economy."
The Beijing Daily analyzes the "new judgements, new formulations and new concepts" in Xi's work report. This new formulation-建设富强民主文明和谐美丽的社会主义现代化强国-is a mouthful-"Construct a rich, powerful, democratic, civilized, harmonious, beautiful Socialist modern superpower"
2. Is Xi Planning To Take China’s Governance Model Global?
Comment: It sure sounds like it. This is not exporting revolution as the PRC did under Mao, but in the aftermath of the 2008 financial crisis, the continuing chaos in the Middle East, the ongoing Brexit mess and the unfolding Trump train wreck Xi may find a growing market for the PRC's governance model. Western complacency because "China can't innovate " or "the economy is on the verge of collapse" and disunity about how to respond to the PRC challenge needs to end...
The 20th century witnessed fierce rivalry between socialist and capitalist camps, but the fall of the Soviet Union dealt a heavy blow to the world socialist movement. However, China resisted such head-winds and marched into the new century with a sinicized Marxism.
On Wednesday Xi declared that socialism with Chinese characteristics has entered a new era.
Scientific socialism is full of vitality in 21st century China; the banner of socialism with Chinese characteristics is flying high and proud for all to see.
The illusion that socialism is over is now dead in the water.
It is clear that capitalism is completely unfit to monopolize the world's ideology. This has been more true than ever since the 2008 financial crisis whose prolonged impact still causes ripples across the developed world. And so the wealth gap widens, the working class suffers, and the society remains divided.
The cracks in capitalism are all-too-easy for everyone to see. It is no surprise that there is a growing nostalgia for socialism in the West.
China Media Project on the People's Daily commentary “Opening New Horizons in Socialism With Chinese Characteristics 人民日报社论：开辟中国特色社会主义新境界” ---Xi Jinping the Navigator:
The commentary stinks of confidence. Does it stink more than usual? That is hard to say. But I found it particularly interesting that it argues that China’s achievements over the past 5 years have offered an example to be emulated by developing nations. At one point it says that “socialism with Chinese characteristics has expanded the path for developing nations in progressing toward modernization, gifting Chinese knowledge to humankind and offering China’s plan.”
The idea of “China’s Plan” (中国方案), which Xi Jinping introduced in July 2014 in a meeting with leaders from Central and South America, might be worth keeping an eye on. As newly prosperous China seeks, under these two overlapping “centenary goals,” to become globally influential China, maintaining and propagating what it sees as its native innovation of socialism — and “Chinese Marxism,” another interesting term in this commentary — will no doubt be central to the project.
However, Schell, the head of the Asia Society’s Center on US-China Relations, said the decision to honour Xi was not only noteworthy “because it makes Xi Jinping look like a thought leader comparable to Chairman Mao. It also suggests that [China’s political system] Socialism with Chinese Characteristics is a viable counter-model to the presumption of western liberal democracy and capitalism. In a sense, what Xi is setting up here is not only a clash of civilisation and values, but one of political and economic systems.”
3. Trump Asia Team Is a Bit Thin Compared to Xi's Americas Team
Administration sources said Trump is ready to announce his intent to nominate Randall Schriver to be assistant secretary of defense for Asian and Pacific affairs, the top Asia policy job at the Pentagon...
Administration sources also confirmed that former White House Asia official Victor Cha is set to be named U.S. ambassador to South Korea...
The Asia policy process thus far has relied heavily on National Security Council senior director for Asia Matt Pottinger, who is taking a lead role in preparing for Trump’s trip.
Comment: Pottinger by all accounts is terrific but there is only so much one person and a small staff can do in the Trump maelstrom...
4. 19th Standing Committee Guesses Du Jour
Comment: We should finally have the answer in 130 hours or so, then we can move on to more important things...
President Xi Jinping’s trusted ally Li Zhanshu stands a good chance of becoming chairman of China’s parliament while Communist Party organisation chief Zhao Leji is likely to head its corruption watchdog, sources have told the South China Morning Post.
Comment: Zhao Leji would be an interesting choice to head the CCDI given all the rumors of his problems as well as the detention of Wei Minzhou, a top aide to Zhao when Zhao was Party Secretary of Shaanxi.
In excerpted comments in Thursday’s People's Daily Hu Chunhua was not quoted as putting "Xi Jinping" in front of “Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era" 十九大报告作出了“中国特色社会主义进入新时代”的重大判断，具有划时代的里程碑意义--时政--人民网
The disciplinary watchdog will be transformed into a superagency, overseeing all government departments as well as the ruling party, officials said on Thursday...
There is speculation in Beijing that the new body could also offer a role for anti-corruption tsar and finance guru Wang Qishan, Mr Xi’s powerful wing man.
5. Tencent Announces It Has More Than 7000 Employees Who Are Party Members
Comment: The company also says that Party members played a lead role in developing WeChat. Interesting details, probably not helpful for Tencent’s expansion plans into Western markets...
With the introduction of a new game by Tencent, people can now also clap along to Xi Jinping’s speech from their own living room. The game became an online hit on October 18. It was already played over 400 million times by 9 pm Beijing time.
6. Rex Tillerson Has Tough Words For China In Speech About India
China, while rising alongside India, has done so less responsibly, at times undermining the international, rules-based order even as countries like India operate within a framework that protects other nations’ sovereignty.
China’s provocative actions in the South China Sea directly challenge the international law and norms that the United States and India both stand for.
The United States seeks constructive relations with China, but we will not shrink from China’s challenges to the rules-based order and where China subverts the sovereignty of neighboring countries and disadvantages the U.S. and our friends.
Video of the speech here
What was unusual, though, was that Mr. Tillerson felt the need to emphasize how much more the United States likes India than it does China and, to a lesser extent, Pakistan.
China has called on the US to "abandon its prejudices" after US Secretary of State Rex Tillerson claimed Beijing was subverting the global order and pursuing predatory economic policies.
“Naturally a more and more proactive and assertive China, which is shaping its periphery, which has leadership ambitions in the region and beyond, will bring more challenges (for India),” said AK Kantha, the former Indian envoy to China who served during 2014-16.
“China is opting for an Asia where it has pre-eminence. This will make our management of relations with China , management of our foreign policy priorities more challenging,” added Kantha, who now heads the Institute of Chinese Studies in New Delhi.
A Newly launched podcast, and the inaugural one is on China-India relations-UPenn Center for the Study of Contemporary China by University of Pennsylvania Center for the Study of Contemporary Podcasts
7. Guo Wengui Halts Webcasting During The Party Congress, Meets Again With Steve Bannon
Comment: Tips appreciated on exactly what Guo and Bannon are cooking up.
After speaking with his "old leaders", Guo wrote on Twitter that he will halt webcasting to see how the 19th Party Congress goes. Threats/promises, mix of both shut him up?--Guo Wengui Posts To Twitter That He Is Temporarily Suspending His Webcasts :
The suspension involves a 90-day block on any new live-stream postings of videos and was the result of a complaint made against a recent Guo video for alleged harassment...Other videos by Guo posted prior to the suspension remain accessible.
Comment: Guo has more than once violated the Terms of Service of Twitter and Youtube by posting personal information like ID numbers and ID documents...unclear in this case what prompted the suspension
8. Dog Eats Man, Sun Rises In The East, China's GDP Right On Target
Gross domestic product rose 6.8% in third quarter from year earlier, matching estimate in Bloomberg survey, after 6.9% growth in first half Retail sales jumped 10.3% in September from a year earlier Industrial production rose 6.6% last month Fixed-asset investment climbed 7.5% in first nine months of this year
Chinese officials say they are working hard to control China’s ballooning debt. The third quarter may not be a good example of that. Measures of credit and money supply grew faster than the economy itself in August and September, according to Chinese data.
Urged on by Beijing, 38 per cent of all bank loans issued in the 12 months to August were home mortgages, according to official data, and local governments purchased 18 per cent of all residential floor space sold last year as part of a drive to provide affordable housing, according to estimates by E-House China Research Institute.
Property sales by floor area fell 1.5 percent in September from a year earlier, compared with a 4.3 percent increase in August and a 34 percent jump in September 2016, according to Reuters calculations based on official data released on Thursday.
Business, Economy, Finance And Trade
China's Top Bank Regulator Endorses Reform of Finance Industry - Bloomberg The market share of foreign banks in China is falling, which isn’t good for competition, China Banking Regulatory Commission Chairman Guo Shuqing said at the Communist Party’s twice-a-decade congress in Beijing. The country will give overseas banks “more room” in equity ownership and business scope, he said, without providing details.
Anbang Back to Selling High-Risk Universal Life Policies - Caixin Global While the resumption abides by the proper approval process at the China Insurance Regulatory Commission (CIRC), some industry executives said the regulator appears not determined enough in reining in liquidity risks, especially among less-capitalized insurers.
China central bank warns against 'Minsky Moment' due to excessive optimism - Reuters “If there are too many pro-cyclical factors in the economy, cyclical fluctuations are magnified and there is excessive optimism during the period, accumulating contradictions that could lead to the so-called Minsky Moment,” Zhou was speaking on the sidelines of China’s 19th Communist Party congress.
China’s Central SOEs Hold Over USD905 Billion in Overseas Assets | Yicai Global Overseas assets held by China’s central state-owned enterprises are currently worth more than CNY6 trillion (USD905.3 billion) and span 185 countries and regions worldwide, Economic Information Daily reported, citing information from the State-Owned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission of the State Council.
HNA to Invest $7.6 Billion in Tourism App HiApp - Caixin Global Airline and travel conglomerate HNA Group Co. plans to invest up to 50 billion yuan ($7.5 billion) to launch a digital tourism platform as the company strives to diversify its businesses and move online. The mobile application, HiApp — which will be launched before the end of the year — will bring together HNA’s offerings in the hospitality, aviation and financial sectors, HNA announced at a media event Tuesday.
China has ‘halted intervention in yuan exchange rate market’ | South China Morning Post The recent stability in the yuan exchange rate has been “completely decided by market factors” as the central bank has basically ended its day-to-day intervention in the foreign exchange market, a deputy governor at the People’s Bank of China said on Wednesday.
China’s $150bn debt-for-equity swap shows signs of fizzling - FT $$ Of the Rmb1.04tn ($157bn) in such swaps that have been announced over the past year, banks have so far executed just Rmb142.9bn ($21.6bn), or 13.7 per cent, according to a report from UBS. In some transactions, the delivered size of the equity investments has been just a fraction of the originally announced deals. For example, for a Rmb25bn deal between Shanxi Coking and China Construction Bank, only Rmb2bn has been swapped, according to UBS data.
China’s trade officials urge easing of US security reviews as a concession during Trump visit | South China Morning Post “We understand the need for the review. We’re just asking for the government to shorten the review time and reduce some of the complexity,” Zhao Zhenge, US representative of the China Council for the Promotion of International Trade, said, referring to foreign investment reviews conducted by the Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States (CFIUS).
China’s Giant Ball of Money May Be Headed Back to Stocks - Bloomberg “Economic fundamentals are improving, valuations are OK and there’s a global phenomenon of low volatility -- that’s why stocks are in an ideal environment to heal,” said Hao Hong, chief strategist at Bocom International Holdings Co., who predicted the market’s peak and trough in 2015. “But to speak of frenzies in stocks again, only two and a bit years away from 2015, it’s probably a little too early.”
Alcoa Sees Global Aluminum Market Balancing on China's Curbs - Bloomberg The largest U.S. aluminum producer reduced its global surplus forecast for the lightweight metal this year as China appears to be holding to its promise to curb capacity to meet pollution-control targets.
China's power generation grows faster in September - Xinhua Last month, power production rose 5.3 percent, 0.5 percentage point faster than August, the National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) said Thursday.
China says foreign firms welcome benefits from internal Communist Party cells - Reuters Party cells in foreign firms were well-received as a way of helping them understand Chinese policies and resolving disputes, Qi Yu, a deputy head of the Communist Party’s Organisation Department, told a news briefing on the sidelines of a key twice-a-decade party congress in Beijing.
Politics, Law And Ideology
杨晓渡在记者招待会介绍全面从严治党情况——中纪委视频页面——中央纪委监察部网站 Yang Xiaodu's comments at the CCDI press conference, with video
What did Xi Jinping say about cyberspace? « China Copyright and Media The report announces a new era in China’s historical progress. In CCP theory, history is divided in stages, which are characterised by various contradictions that are subordinate manifestations of one fundamental contradiction. Once that contradiction is solved, history moves to the next phase. Xi now announced that the primary contradiction is no longer the one defined by Deng Xiaoping: the tension between China’s material poverty and the needs of its population. Instead, Xi claims the major problem that must now be solved is China’s imbalanced development. In other words, GDP growth at all costs is out, in favour of a more comprehensive approach to social and economic governance. Technology will obviously play a central role in this regard, as a governance tool and a potential economic growth pole, but also as a source of potential risk and disruption. The journal China Information Security very usefully listed the excerpts referring to cybersecurity and informatization, which are translated here**:** 关注 | 十九大报告中有关网安和信息化事业的内容
The Economics Behind China's Crackdown On Civil Society : NPR President Xi Jinping has led an unprecedented crackdown on lawyers, NGOs, academics and journalists. Information is more tightly controlled by the Communist Party than it's been since the Mao years.
Big Data Strengthens China’s Grip — The Information “It is a painful awakening,” wrote Mr. Creemers in a recent paper, “to find that the libertarian ethos underpinning much of the evolution of technology has fostered systems that enable more total control over individual lives than at any time in the past.”
Long time no see: elder statesmen make rare public appearance at China’s top table | South China Morning Post Former Premier Zhu Rongji, a long-time favourite with the public, was also there. As one of the presidium’s elder members he took his position alongside his fellow elite, though at 89, and apparently suffering from a cough, he needed help getting up from his seat at the end of the proceedings.
习近平作报告全场71次掌声 此处最密、此处最长（附原音）--时政--人民网 People's Daily infographic on the 71 times the delegates applauded during Xi's speech
他们是最早看到十九大报告的外国人|叶海亚|报告|外籍_新浪新闻 Meet the foreigners who helped translate Xi's work report
Infographics: Xi's report to 19th CPC National Congress - Xinhua Nice summaries for those who need graphic explainers for PPTs
440 senior officials investigated for corruption - Xinhua Yang said more than 8,900 city level officials and over 63,000 county level officials were punished during that period. A total of 278,000 grassroots Party members and officials were also punished, he said. China is working with the international community to hunt corruption suspects who had fled overseas, leading to the capture of 3,453 fugitives, Yang said.
Propaganda in China means heavily scripted news conferences - AP The “corridor” event, which was in fact held in the middle of a cavernous atrium in the Great Hall of the People, is a study in how the Communist Party is responding to pressure for greater transparency while maintaining an iron grip on what’s said and how it’s said. Long decrees continue to appear on the front of the People’s Daily newspaper — but propaganda in 21st Century China is also rolled out with intricately set up, often heavily scripted news conferences that generate headlines and videos for state-controlled media.
Foreign and Military Affairs
Now Hear This—The Clock is Ticking in China: The Decade of Concern Has Begun - By Captain Jim Fanell, U.S. Navy (Retired) | U.S. Naval Institute Capt. Jim Fannell, US Navy (Retired)-Chinese leaders likely assess their last opportunity for using military force to physically restore their perceived territory as around 2030. This would allow for two decades of “peace” before Beijing would conduct a grand ceremony to memorialize the “second 100”—the 100th anniversary of the People’s Republic of China. Which leads back to President Xi’s “certification” at Zhurihe and the start of the “Decade of Concern” two years early. His declaration should be a clarion call to the United States and the rest of the world. The clock is ticking and conflict is on the horizon—unless we take decisive action now.
Hong Kong, Macao
Xi Says China Will Maintain 'Firm Grasp' on Hong Kong, Warns Against Separatism - RFA Xi told delegates that Beijing's jurisdiction over the city, and the former Portuguese enclave of Macau, should not be shaken, amid concerns that the "one country, two systems" principle has already been diluted by repeated interventions in Hong Kong. "We will develop and strengthen the ranks of patriots who love both our country and their regions," he said, adding that "patriots will be playing the principal role" in governing the city.
Tech And Media
Tencent Leads $4 Billion Round In China's On-Demand Local Services Firm Meituan-Dianping – China Money Network Sequoia Capital, Singapore’s GIC Private Ltd., Canada Pension Plan Investment Board, Trustbridge Partners, Tiger Global Management, Coatue Management and China-UAE Investment Cooperation Fund, also participated in the round, which is among the largest private investment rounds globally for a private company.
LeEco-Backed Smartphone-Maker Gets Lifeline From Convertible Bond - Caixin Global Coolpad said it will sell the HK$582 million ($74.5 million) worth of convertible bonds to Centralcon Enterprises Co. Ltd. The bonds can later be converted to Coolpad shares for HK$0.581 apiece, representing a 20% discount to the company’s price when its shares were last traded in Hong Kong. Coolpad shares have been suspended since late March, when they traded at HK$0.72
Unveil China Outside China：Silicon Valley thumps up for China's innovation - People's Daily Online If we ask you to pick one buzzword for China’s past five years and its upcoming years, what would it be? People’s Daily Online interviewed Airbnb, Oath and Leap.ai in Silicon Valley. Watch this video to find out their answers.
Apple Watch Hits Cellular Snag in China - WSJ Industry analysts say the suspension likely stemmed from Chinese government security concerns to do with tracking users of the device, which uses different technology than standard mobile phones. China strictly regulates mobile phones and all three major telecom service providers are state-owned companies. To get a SIM—subscriber identity module—card to operate the phone, users must register under their real names with a network carrier.
Society, Art, Sports, Culture And History
Forget Marx and Mao. Chinese City Honors Once-Banned Confucian. - The New York Times GUIYANG, China — Nearly 500 years after he died, the Chinese philosopher Wang Yangming once again wielded a calligraphy brush, carefully daubed it into a tray of black ink and elegantly wrote out his most famous phrase: “the unity of knowledge and action.”
Chinoiresie | Made in China - ISSUE 3: Chinese Labour in a Global Perspective July – September 2017 With China’s political and economic power increasing by the day, it is imperative not only to assess how this growing influence affects labour relations in other countries, but also to abandon an ‘exceptional’ view of China by engaging in more comparative research. In this sense, the study of Chinese labour indeed provides a powerful lens—or perhaps a mirror—to further our understanding of the contemporary world and our potential futures. With this aim in mind, in this issue we publish a series of essays that either frame Chinese labour comparatively or examine its transnational implications.
How the Two-Child Policy Shapes Kids’ Names - Sixth Tone In such a patriarchal culture, the birth of a son means the continuation of the family line, whereas a daughter can mean its end. After the implementation of the two-child policy, parents of only daughters became some of the strongest advocates for the practice of a second child taking their mother’s surname.
Chinese Firm to Enlist Asia Sponsors for FIFA World Cup - Caixin Global Given that there already have been three Chinese companies chosen as FIFA sponsors — none of which is affiliated with Desports — it is unclear whether the DDMC project will be attractive to bidders. Additionally, these bidders will fall into the organization’s so-called “tier-three regional partner” category, which could mean that they enjoy fewer sponsorship rights than levels one and two.
Energy, Environment, Science And Health
Three Gorges Shifting Focus to Offshore Wind Power - Caixin Global China Three Gorges Corp., which built and operates the world’s largest hydroelectric power plant, says it will shift focus toward nonhydropower forms of “new energy” in coming years.
China's bold gas plan may threaten winter power supplies - Reuters China has ordered state oil companies to speed up the construction of pipelines to move natural gas to homes and factories, underscoring worries that the country’s insufficient infrastructure could cause power outages during the peak winter demand period
Chinese Biotech Firm Buys U.S. Clinical Researcher - Caixin Global Chinese biotechnology and medical-device developer WuXi AppTec Group has acquired U.S.-based clinical research company ResearchPoint Global, as the one-time New York-listed company seeks to fortify its overseas network
Rooftops, Factories Heat Up Solar Power Installation - Caixin Global China’s installation of “distributed” solar power systems soared in the first nine months of the year, as companies and individuals raced to set up small-scale generators typically based on rooftops and in factory compounds to take advantage of government subsidies.